# Production of very fine grained materials

Since recrystallization is driven by reduction of stored energy, the amount of cold work influences the grain size evolution. Materials with grain sizes down to the nanometer scale can be obtained by exposing the material to severe plastic deformation (SPD). Such SPD processes include Equal Channel Angular Pressing/Extrusion (ECAP/ECAE), Asymmetric Rolling (ASR), Multi-Directional Forging (MDF), High-Pressure Torsion (HPT) and Twist Extrusion (TE). Some of these processes are discussed further below.

During ECAP, studied in Hallberg et al. (2010), the material specimen is pressed through a channel die as illustrated below.

The amount of effective plastic deformation, denoted by $\displaystyle \varepsilon_{\mathrm{eff}}^{\mathrm{p}}$, that is imposed onto the specimen in each pass can be estimated from knowledge of the die geometry according to

$\displaystyle \varepsilon_{\mathrm{eff}}^{\mathrm{p}}=\frac{N_{\mathrm{pass}}}{\sqrt{3}}\left[2\mathrm{cot}\left(\frac{\Phi}{2}+\frac{\Psi}{2}\right)+\Psi\mathrm{cosec}\left(\frac{\Phi}{2}+\frac{\Psi}{2}\right)\right]$

Varying the channel geometry thus allows control of the amount of plastic deformation that is exerted onto the specimen in each pass through the die. If the specimen is rotated between each pass through the die, different standardized processing routes can be obtained.

Another SPD process is asymmetric rolling, discussed in Hallberg (2013), where a conventional rolling process can be made asymmetric by different methods.

The asymmetry of the process can be induced by having different radii $r$ of the rolls, by different roller velocities, i.e. $\omega_{1}\ne\omega_{2}$ or by different friction/lubrication conditions at each side of the sheet. The asymmetry increases the shear deformation of the rolled sheet and hence the total amount of effective plastic deformation.

# Metal forming and materials processing

Beside casting and machining, forming is one of the main processes for manufacturing of components from metallic materials. Forming processes include sheet metal forming as well as bulk metal forging. Metal forming generally involves significant plastic deformations, elevated temperatures, high deformation velocities and an increased risk for initiation of cracks in the material. These macroscopic process conditions are intimately connected to the microstructure evolution inside the material.

In Hallberg et al. (2007) and Hallberg et al. (2010), deep-drawing of stainless steel is used as application examples for constitutive models where martensitic phase transformation is considered, see the illustration below. As the martensite phase is much harder than the parent austenitic phase, the material properties may change dramatically in the presence of this kind of diffusionless - and thus rapid - phase transformation.

The influence of deformation rate and material pre-processing in metal forging is studied in Hallberg et al. 2009. Different behavior of a 100Cr6 steel, due to previous tempering or annealing, was studied in high strain rate axisymmetric compression, experimentally as well as through numerical simulations.

The illustration below is taken from Hallberg et al. 2009. Note the development of a "shear cross" (white lines) in the tempered - and much harder - material. This localized deformation is absent in the annealed specimen.

Another example of metal forming is rolling, for example discussed in Hallberg (2013). A conventional rolling process can be made asymmetric by different methods in order to increase the deformation imposed onto the sheet.

The asymmetry of the process can be induced by having different radii $r$ of the rolls, by different roller velocities, i.e. $\omega_{1}\ne\omega_{2}$ or by different friction/lubrication conditions at each side of the sheet. The asymmetry increases the shear deformation of the rolled sheet and hence the total amount of effective plastic deformation. This is utilized in severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes for production of very fine-grained metals.